This page contains referenc information on all images used in the Lakota Winter Counts Online Exhibit.
 
Portrait in profile of Washi-Ta-Tonga. American Horse. standing with large feather head dress.

Portrait (profile) of Washi-Ta-Tonga (American Horse) 1877. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. BAE GN 03217, NAA INV 06531300.

   
 
Omaha Dance of the Oglalas. Two dancers in front of horse.

The Omaha Dance of the Oglalas at Pine Ridge, South Dakota, 1892. Photograph by James Mooney. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. BAE GN 3318D.

     
 
View of Sitting Bull's camp.

View of Sitting Bull's camp. Photograph by David Francis Barry. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 01601517.

     
 
Women curing buffalo hides outside of teepees.

Women curing buffalo hides. Photograph by Stanley J. Morrow. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 09852400.

     
 
Portrait of American Horse seated.

Portrait of American Horse, Photograph by Daniel S. Mitchell. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 00576100.

     
 
Sitting Bull's daughter Standing Holy, as youg child with hair braids.

Portrait of Standing Holy, Sitting Bull's daughter. Photograph by David Francis Barry. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 01602311.

     
 
Large slices of meat dry on racks with teepees in background.

Tipi camp with racks of drying meat and corn. Photograph by David Francis Barry. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 01601810.

 

 

 
Painting of Tchan-dee, Tobacco, an Oglala Chief

Tchan-dee, Tobacco, an Oglala Chief by George Catlin. 1985.66.71. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr.

   
 
Woman crouching in the foreground.

Unidentified woman outside a tipi. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 01601909.

     
 
Shows boundaries stretching into Northard to south cenral Canada, southern Texas south, east as far as the Carolinas, west as far as Montana

10. Map of tribal boundaries. Courtesy of the Handbook of American Indians, Volume 13, Plains. Smithsonian Institution.

 

Sioux People

   
 
Stereoscope image. Creek in forgound, teepees along horizon in background.

Indian encampment near Fort Laramie, Wyoming. Photograph by Alexander Gardner. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 09825000.

     
 
Stereoscope image of seted native.

Portrait of a young Santee Dakota man holding a war club. Photograph by D.D. Merrill. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 09860000.

Lakota/Teton    
 
American Horse seated holding pipe.

Portrait (Profile) of Chief Makhpiya-Luta or Ma-Kpe-Ah-Lou-Tah (Red Cloud or Scarlet Cloud, 1880. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. BAE GN 03237A, NAA INV 06535700.

     
 
Few buffalo on grassy plain with Butte rising in the sky in background.

Bear Butte, South Dakota. Photograph by Candace S. Greene.

 Minnesota Origins
Teepee door propped open on sticks revealing interior, woman seated inside.

Woman inside canvas-covered tipi. Photograph by Whitney and Zimmerman (St. Paul, Minnesota). National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 01601508.

   
 
    Indian men in a canoe, Dakota Territory. Photograph by Stanley J. Yankton. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 09861000.
 
Image of winter count entry. Person in profile gestures left. Large fish hovering above.

Detail of Rosebud winter count, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA MS 2001-10.

     
 
Two deer drawn in pencil in a notebook.

Drawing of deer by Roan Eagle. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 08528134.

     
Westward Migration
 
Painting of warriors on horses persuing one another with bows ready to fire.

Battle Between Sioux and Sac and Fox by George Catlin. 1985.66.545 Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr.

     
 
Drawing of 6 mounted hunters with guns shooting at 8 buffalo who are running from them.

Drawing of buffalo hunt by Roan Eagle. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 08528107.

     
 
Drawing of mounted hunter slaying buffalo.

Drawing of a buffalo hunt. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 08510609.

 

 

 
Oil painting of struggling buffalo dying from its hunting wounds. Blood running from its body.

Dying Buffalo, Shot with an Arrow, by George Catlin. 1985.66.407. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr.

   
 
9 men in military garb standing in front of a brick wall.

Group of men outside masonry structure, Fort Wingate, New Mexico. Photograph by George Kirkland. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 01603706.

 
 
Miners and mules walking single file slightly uphill toward the left.

Group of miners, with picks, shovels, pans, and mule train. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 01603009.

     
 Horses and Guns

Strong posture of Rain In the Face seated on a horse.

Chief Iromagaja (Rain in the Face) on horseback, 1886. Photograph by David Francis Barry. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 01605202.

     
 
Non-natives standing, some holding rifles, teepee in background.

Sioux scouts in camp. Photograph by F. Jay Haynes (Moorhead, Minnesota). National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 09822700.

     
 
Drawing of 6 mounted hunters with guns shooting at 8 buffalo who are running from them

Drawing of buffalo hunt by Roan Eagle. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 08528107.

 Conflicts
Several men standing scattered among numerous fallen trees

Group of miners felling trees. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 1603012.

   
 
Officers on horses looking out leftward below toward a village in the distance.

General Nelson A. Miles and cavalry men on horseback viewing camp of tipis, Pine Ridge Reservation, January 16, 1891. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 01605211.

     
 
Drawing of mounted natives pursuing mounted whites.

Drawing by Red Horse of the Battle of the Little Big Horn. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 08568800.

     
 
Soldiers stand over large open grave, a trench with many bodies of dead natives piles within it.

Drawing by Joseph Newcomb of Mass Burial of Natives Killed in Wounded Knee Massacre, Non-natives Nearby. BAE GN 03200A5, NAA INV 06527800.

     
Treaties
 
Three chiefs standing in foreground, apparently in conversation.

Treaty Council of 1868. Left to right: Fire Thunder, Old Man Afraid of His Horses, Pipe. Photograph by Alexander Gardner. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. Negative 3312 A.

     
 
Officer is seated, native stands before him, they are conversing.

Drawing of Indian scout consulting with Army officer. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 08510521.

     
 
Who Are the Lakota? - Contemporary Perspectives
 
Bob Gipp

Images from the Chiefs Ride.

1-9. Courtesy Bob Gipp and the Teton Times.

 

Placards hanging in the Standing Rock Community Center, courtesy of Bob Gipp. Original photographs from the collection of and reproduced with permission from the State Historical Society of North Dakota, except as noted.

12 portraits of Chiefs.

Left to Right:
Thunder Hawk, 1952-2132
Two Bears, 1952-5644-a
Sitting Bull, 0051-07
Rain in the Face, 1952-3466
One Bull, 1952-5026
Mad Bear, 1952-5013
John Grass, 1952-5068
Goose, 0123-10
Chief Gall, 1952-2838
Chief Flying By (original source unknown)
Bighead, 0160-09
Chief Big Head (original source unknown)

 

 The Young Family

Several images of the Young Family near the Missouri River and at Standing Rock Monument.

Pepper, Phyllis and Tipziwin Young. Photograph by John Lenker.

Several images of the Young family.

  Courtesy the Young family.

 
 
 
Image of Rocky Buttes holding an axe, painted teepees in background.Rocky Buttes Standing. Panited teepees in background.

Rocky Buttes, 1952-3125; 1952-3123. Reproduced with permission from the State Historical Society of North Dakota.

     
 
Rocky Buttes with axe re-enacting a war scene. Dying soldier with head in her lap.

Rocky Buttes and Wallace Davidson, 1952-1093. Reproduced with permission from the State Historical Society of North Dakota.

     
 
Theresa Yellow Lodge standing.

Theresa Yellow Lodge, 1952-3476. Reproduced with permission from the State Historical Society of North Dakota.

     
 
Theresa Yellow Lodge sitting.

Theresa Yellow Lodge, 1952-3270. Reproduced with permission from the State Historical Society of North Dakota.

     
 
Image of winter count. Pictographs on wide rectangular cloth.

Winter count by Blue Thunder, 1986.234.22. Reproduced with permission from the State Historical Society of North Dakota.

     
 
Detail from Yellow Lodge Blue Thunder winter count. Pictographs include one depicting the Pearl Harbor invasion.

Blue Thunder/Yellow Lodge winter count. Reproduced with permission of the Heard Museum. Phoenix, Arizona.

  Steve Emery
 

Steve with arm around his wife Belva.

Several images from Steve Emery.

Photograph by John Lenker.

 

 

Courtesy Steve Emery.

     
 
Basil Clement image superimposed over Lone Dog Winter Count

Portrait of Basil Clement. Photograph by Frances Densmore. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 00633300. Background, Lone Dog winter count, National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. 23/0246.

     
 
3 images descibed in next cell.

Portrait (front) of Tatanka Yotanka (Sitting Buffalo Bull or Sitting Bull), 1885. Photograph by David Francis Barry. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. BAE GN 03193A, NAA INV 06672300.

Sitting Bull, his wives, and children, sitting outside a tipi with a mounted soldier in the background. Photograph by W.R. Cross (Niobrara, Nebraska). National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 09831900.

Sitting Bull and Agent James McLaughlin at dedication of Standing Rock, 1886. Photograph by David Francis Barry. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 01603902.

     
 
Kicking Bear seated holding pipe.

Portrait (front) of Mato-Wa-Nahtaka (Kicking Bear), priest of Ghost Dance, March 1896. Photograph by William Dinwiddie. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. BAE GN 03253B, NAA INV 06673500.

     
 
Profile portrait of General Miles in uniform, looking right with crossed arms.

General Nelson A. Miles. Library of Congress. LC-DIG-cwpbh-00847.

     
 
Chief Big Foots' frozen body in foreground, soldiers stand on background to the right.

Frozen body of Chief Big Foot in snow on Wounded Knee Battlefield, January 1, 1891. Northwestern Photographic Company. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 00525400.

 
 

Soldiers stand over large open grave, a trench with many bodies of dead natives piled within it.

Drawing by Josepha Newcomb of mass burial of dead from Wounded Knee massacre. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. BAE GN 03200A5, NAA INV 06527800.

     
 
Two portraits on Sinte Maza, one facing, one in profile.

Portraits of Sinte Maza or Iron Tail, 1913. Photographs by De Lancey W. Gill. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. BAE GN 3669 A and BAE GN 3669 B.

     
 
Woman scraping a hide, stretched vertically over frame.

Woman scraping hide stretched in frame; brush arbor nearby. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. BAE GN 03700, NAA INV 06605800.

     
 
Portrait of American Horse seated with pipe.

Portrait of American Horse. Photograph by Daniel S. Mitchell. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution NAA INV 00576100. Background: American Horse winter count. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution NAA INV 08634000.

     
 
Long Soldier seted wearing top hat.

Portrait of Long Soldier, circa 1880s by D.F. Barry. Courtesy of the Denver Public Library. Background, Long Soldier winter count, National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. 11/6720.

     
 
Basil Clement image superimposed over Lone Dog Winter Count

Portrait of Basil Clement. Photograph by Frances Densmore. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. NAA INV 00633300. Background: Lone Dog winter count, National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. 23/0246.

 
Kills two seated painting image onto a hide winter count.

Kills Two displaying a winter count. Photograph by John Anderson. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution NAA INV 03494000.

 
 
Photo of grassy plain stretching into the distance.

Dakota landscape, 1913. Photograph by Frances Densmore. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. Negative 4827, NAA INV 10000884.

     
 

Master Clips, SSGP2499.